Classroom Seating for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Therapy Balls Versus Chairs

Schilling, D.L., Washington, K., Billingsley, F.F, & Deitz, J. (2003). Classroom seating for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Therapy balls versus chairs. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 57, 534-541.

A single subject A-B-A-B design was completed to investigate the effectiveness of therapy ball chairs on in-seat behavior and writing legibility in students with ADHD. Three 4th grade subjects with ADHD participated in the study. During phases 1 and 3, all subjects and their classroom peers sat in chairs. During phases 2 and 4, all class members sat on therapy balls. Measures of in-seat behavior and writing legibility demonstrated improved performance during the therapy ball phases. Additionally, teachers and students preferred the therapy ball chairs.

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